Compensation Measures for Victims of Nuclear Testing in China
＊The following article is reproduced with permission from CPHU Research Report Series 35 (The Center for Peace, Hiroshima University). Please refer to the original site <http://doi.org/10.15027/52459> for citation. A PDF version is also available from the original site.
The Center for Peace, Hiroshima University
List of Abbreviations
|CMC||Central Military Commission (中央军事委员会)|
|MCA||Ministry of Civil Affairs (民政部)|
|MoC||Ministry of Construction (建设部)|
|MoH||Ministry of Health (卫生部)|
|MLSS||Ministry of Labor and Social Security (劳动和社会保障部)|
|NPC||National People’s Congress (全国人民代表大会)|
This article explores diagnostic criteria and administrative policies related to support measures for victims of nuclear tests in China.
On August 6, 1945, an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, and another on Nagasaki on August 9. Immediately after the bombings, Chinese newspaper People’s Daily published an editorial concluding the atomic bombings were “war revolution and scientific revolution,” and, in successive articles, it manifested concerns over U.S. domination of nuclear technology.
On February 2, 1953—during the Korean War, which started in 1950—then U.S. president Eisenhower referred to the possibility of using atomic bombs against China in his State of the Union Address. Development of the Cold War, for example the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis, triggered the Chinese government to regard U.S. nuclear weapons policies as a security threat, and it determined to possess nuclear deterrence capabilities for its security.
In April 1955, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) agreed to construct cyclotrons and nuclear reactors for China, and China formulated the “12-Year Plan for Nuclear Development.” It was then on October 16, 1964 that China conducted its first nuclear test at Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and became the first nuclear power in Asia. China conducted its last atmospheric nuclear test on October 16, 1980, and its last underground nuclear test on July 29, 1996.
From 1964 to 1996, China conducted more than 40 nuclear tests, but the effects of the tests—on areas around the test sites or on the people living there and the military officers who participated in the tests—have remained unclear. Some retired veterans started reporting physical and psychological suffering in the 1970s and started to make petitions to the government for health protection and livelihood support. Around 2004, the 40th anniversary of the first Chinese nuclear test, a growing number of affected veterans started making petitions for governmental support. In response, the Chinese government formulated clinical criteria for diagnosis of radiation effects, and started medical examination, registration, and treatment of the veterans suffering radiation effects, such as those who participated in the nuclear testing at Base 21 (the former “Unit 8023”). Furthermore, it revised a system of health protection and livelihood support for veterans, which has entitled those engaged in the nuclear testing and suffering from radiation effects to governmental support.
This article explores the scientific and medical criteria for measuring radiation effects in China through an analysis of the compensation measures for retired veterans. Also, through analyzing funding sources and institutions that implement the measures, this article examines characteristics of the support system—for example, how it defines nuclear victims.
2. Transformation of Support Measures for Victims of Nuclear Testing in China
2.1 Outline of the Victim Compensation System
In China, support measures for the participants of nuclear testing have been formulated by the government in response to participants’ petitions for health protection and livelihood support. They include special support measures such as examination of the petitioners’ radiation exposure, clinical diagnosis of the radiation effects, and issuance of livelihood support compensation added to military pensions. See Table 1 for the list of primary policies for supporting nuclear victims and other related policies on military pensions.
2.2 Support Measures for Radiation Effects Based on Military Pensions and Social Insurance Program
This subsection presents information on the criteria for certifying radiation effects, the military pension system, and the social insurance system. It is based on these that specific compensation measures for retired veterans of the former Unit 8023 are implemented, such as certification of their radiation effects, health protection, and livelihood support.
2.2.1 Criteria for Certifying Radiation Effects
In September 1980, China’s first diagnostic criteria for radiation effects (GBW-1-80) was promulgated. In the next year, 1981, the Ministry of Health set up the “Committee on the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Diseases” under the National Committee on Sanitary Criteria.
GBW-1-80 details diagnostic criteria for radiation effects caused by external radiation exposure (such as acute radiation syndrome, chronic radiation syndrome, and skin disease) and those by internal exposure. It also presents a general guideline for handling cases. Moreover, based on laws and administrative policies like MoH&MLSS Policy  No. 108, 18 kinds of diagnostic criteria for radiation effects were formulated. They include GBZ112-2002 and GBZ99-2002.
2.2.2 Military Pensions
There are basic administrative policies which comprehensively specify a diverse range of welfare measures for active military officers and retired veterans regarding their health protection, job placement and outplacement, and livelihood support. These policies include MCA Policy  No. 2, MCA & CMC Policy  No. 413, and MCA Policy  No. 34. These policies have served as the legal basis for compensations and other support policies for retired veterans of the former Unit 8023.
2.2.3 Social Insurance Program
Social insurance policies are implemented under the multi-layered cooperation between the central government, local governments, and other institutions (e.g., companies). The legal basis of the implementation of these policies lies in, for example, GB/T 16180-1996, the Social Insurance Law, etc. As is later discussed, the retired veterans who have basic social insurance at their workplaces such as governments and companies obtain compensations through the social insurance system.
3. Criteria for Certifying Nuclear Testing Effects and Livelihood Support
Support measures for victims of nuclear testing in China developed in the context in which recognition of health effects of radiation exposure grew, victims’ health effects became more and more salient, and their challenging living conditions became a social problem. The Chinese government advanced the support measures—ranging from health protection to livelihood support and military pensions—based on certification of radiation effects.
3.1 Clinical Criteria and Treatment
State Council Policy  No. 300 is the first law that provided the diagnostic criteria for radiation effects that retired veterans suffered. It specifies concrete diagnostic criteria for radiation effects and standard amounts of grants for both retired and active military officers. Some of the diagnostic criteria and standards of grants are shown below:
— Those who were exposed to radiation of 50-90 mSv at one time or those who were exposed to radiation of more than 50 mSv in a year through works dealing with radioactive materials are granted financial support of up to 100 Chinese yuan, when the person switches jobs, quits jobs, or retires. Those who have already left for jobs in rural areas are not eligible for additional support.
— Those who were exposed to radiation of 100-1,000 mSv or those who were internally exposed to radiation of more than 600 mSv through ingestion of radioactive materials are placed under a four-year clinical follow-up and are entitled to hospitalization for a health examination once a year. If they retire from military service after the duration of the four years, the local governments have to arrange jobs for them. In addition, they receive a medical examination every other year for 15 years.
— Those who are engaged with work related to radiation receive medical examinations when they switch jobs, quit jobs, or retire. They submit an examination result card and a radiation dose card.
— The 546th Hospital of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army is responsible for physical examinations and treatment of acute and chronic radiation syndromes.
— Expenses such as transportation fees and accommodation expenses necessary for treatment or therapy are to be covered by the organizations to which the entitled individuals belong. Official health insurance and labor insurance cover the cost of medical examinations as much as possible. Those who are diagnosed as radiation victims are entitled to financial support for treatment, which is to be provided by the organizations which employ them.
— All military officers who participate in nuclear testing are educated to gain scientific knowledge related to specifications of nuclear weapons, protective measures against radiation, radiology, etc.
Then in 2003, through State Council Policy  No. 117, the central government clarified that they apply the military pension system defined by MCA Policy  No. 2, etc. to support retired veterans of the former Unit 8023. This policy was formulated as a response to an inquiry from the Gansu Provincial People’s Government, which received petitions from the retired veterans of the former Unit 8023 regarding insufficient healthcare they could get and their challenging living conditions. The main points of this policy are listed below:
— Based on MCA Policy  No. 2, MCA provides adequate compensation to the retired veterans who are certified to have radiation effects. The expenses are covered by the central government.
— If the retired veterans do not meet the radiation effect criteria, then they are entitled to compensations from their employers’ accident insurance while they are under medical treatment. If they are unemployed, they are entitled to livelihood assistance grants from the local governments.
Furthermore, in 2005, MCA Policy  No. 57 was issued. This policy provides that State Council Policy  No. 117, which was formulated as a response to an inquiry from Gansu Province, is to be applied nationwide. The policy also provides that certification and diagnosis of the extent of radiation effects that Unit 8023 veterans suffer has to be finished by August 2005.
Moreover, in the next year, MCA Policy  No. 51 clarified the details of the procedure for diagnosis and certification. For example, it specified the institutes and personnel responsible for the examinations, examination items, and criteria on radiation dose.
3.1.1 Institutions and Personnel Responsible for Medical Certification of Radiation Effects and Treatment
When the retired veterans were in service at the former Unit 8023, they were exposed to a certain dose of radiation, but the details of their exposure and the exposure dose are often unclear. The radiation effects are diagnosed in medical examinations that are available to all kinds of workers. Their examinations are conducted at medical institutes which each province designates according to administrative policies such as President’s Policy  No. 60, MoH Policy  No. 23, and MoH Policy  No. 24. The institutes also have to be certified to conduct examinations of occupational diseases of “Workers of Operation Dealing with Radioactive Hazardous Substances” and to diagnose “Occupational Diseases from Radiation Exposure.” At these institutes, certified doctors diagnose the patients.
3.1.2 Examination Items
Based on MoH Policy  No. 23, patients take such examinations as an internal medicine examination, a dermatology examination, an ophthalmic examination, a blood test, an urinalysis, a kidney function test, a liver function test, an electrocardiogram, a B-mode abdominal ultrasound test, a chest X-ray, etc.
3.1.3 Kinds of Radiation Effects
MoH&MLSS Policy  No. 108 defines “Occupational Diseases from Radiation Exposure” as one of the seven kinds of occupational diseases. They include the following 11 kinds of radiation effects: acute, subacute radiation, and chronic radiation syndromes from external exposure, symptoms form internal exposure, radiation dermatitides, cancers, bone damages, thyroid diseases, glandular diseases, compound damage, and other radiation effects that can be certified based on GBZ112-2002.
3.1.4 Rules on Criteria on Exposure Dose and Certification of Radiation Effects
There are 19 kinds of criteria on diagnosis of radiation effects. They include GBZ99-2002, and GBZ95-2002, GBZ99-2002, and GBZ112-2002.
3.2 Livelihood Support System Based on Military Pension System
In the 1970s, a growing number of retired veterans made petitions to the government regarding radiation effects and health protection. This led to the development of a comprehensive compensation system for retired veterans in the 2000s. This system entitles the veterans of the former Unit 8023 to military pensions.
MLSS Policy  No. 17 and MCA Policy  No. 32 regulate the programs that target retired volunteer soldiers, retired veterans of the Vietnam War, retired veterans of the former Unit 8023, disabled veterans, and demobilized soldiers who enlisted in the military before October 31, 1954. This program includes the following measures for them:
— Preferential Hiring and Outplacement
— Secured Basic Pension, Basic Health Insurance, and Unemployment Insurance
— Secured compensation in accordance with the disability levels defined in MCA & CMC Policy  No. 413
— The program refers to the following rules, guidelines, and criteria: GB/T 16180-1996 and MCA, MLSS, MoH & PLA General Logistics Dept. Policy  No. 195.
Further steps were taken to support the military persons in MCA Policy  No. 32 and MLSS Policy  No. 28. These measures promoted medical examination of the retired veterans of the former Unit 8023 and certification of the radiation effects. They also secured health protection of the military persons who are not certified as being disabled based on State Council Policy  No. 117 and MCA Policy  No. 57. Moreover, these measures raised the amount of livelihood support so that an eligible person can obtain at least 70 yuan. This aimed to alleviate economic hardships of needy households by broadening the scope of the social support system.
Also, MCA Policy  No. 99 specified the amount of compensation for injured or fallen military persons or their bereaved family in accordance with the disability levels (see Table 2). This law also specified livelihood support for demobilized military personnel in rural areas so that they could maintain their living standard. Demobilized military personnel are entitled to livelihood support of no less than 100 yuan a month nationwide, but the proportion of the central government’s contribution and local governments’ contribution is different from region to region. For example, while the central government covers 40 yuan in areas of economic development such as Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai, it pays 80 in underdeveloped areas in Northwest China, such as Inner Mongolia, Sichuan Province, and Qinghai Province.
The retired veterans of the former Unit 8023 who do not have certified disabilities but are sick or in needy circumstances and who are living in rural areas or unemployed are entitled to 100 yuan a month by MCA Policy  No. 100. The proportion of the contributions by the central government and the local governments is the same as mentioned above. This is the latest compensation measure for the retired veterans of the
former Unit 8023, who engaged in nuclear testing. Subsequent laws—including MCA Policy  No. 101, MCA Policy  No. 102, Publicity Department Policy  No. 9, MoC Policy  No. 172, MCA Policy  No. 152, and MCA Policy  No. 135—were promulgated to expand the military pension system targeting active military officers and other retired veterans.
3.3 Support Measures for Radiation Victims’ Children
As a support measure for the children of retired Unit 8023 veterans, the government entitles them to examination and treatment of their congenital disabilities and livelihood support.
MCA Policy  No. 32 established livelihood support for disabled children of retired Unit 8023 veterans of the former Unit 8023. The amount of support was determined in accordance with the living standard of the area where the person resided. If children with disabilities needed treatment, they received treatment within the framework of the “Tomorrow Plan.” This is a nickname for the “Tomorrow Plan for Surgery and Recovery of Children with Disabilities,” which was initiated by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in May 2004. It entitles children with disabilities in welfare facilities to surgeries and rehabilitation.
MCA Policy  No. 194 specified the details of the surgeries and rehabilitation, as well as livelihood support, for disabled children of retired United 8023 veterans. This policy was implemented for one year from June 2006 to June 2007.
The “Tomorrow Plan” categorizes disabilities into four groups: “five senses” (e.g., cataract, cleft lip and palate, etc.), “congenital diseases” (e.g., congenital heart disease), “surgical diseases” (e.g., hernia, hermaphrodite, polio, etc.), and “deformities to be straightened or rehabilitated” (e.g., prosthetic limb, wheelchair, etc.). The cost for surgeries and/or rehabilitation is divided between the central government and provincial governments. In East China, the proportion of the contributions between the central government and provincial governments is 4:6, in Central China 5:5, and in West China 7:3. The central government transfers the funding based on the above proportion to each provincial government. The children themselves do not directly receive the funding. The criteria to determine the amount of support are as shown in Table 3. If the actual expenses are less than the standard amount specified in the criteria, the remaining amount can be used to cover the patients’ transportation costs or fees for rehabilitation.
If disabled children of retired Unit 8023 veterans have a disability certificate, they are entitled to livelihood support based on the guaranteed minimum income standard. In rural areas where a guaranteed minimum income system is not established, the children receive grants based on local standards of support for poor households.
4. Summary: Main Characteristics of the Chinese Support System for Victims of Nuclear Testing
This article presented the detailed information on the system of support for victims of nuclear testing in China. The two main characteristics of this system can be summarized as follows.
(1) The responsibility to implement support measures for nuclear victims is shared by multiple layers of actors: the central government, local governments, and organizations which employ the victims. For example, while support grants for the victims are funded by the central government and provincial governments, provincial governments have a responsibility to designate or certify the medical institutes which diagnose and treat the victims, and the employers have the responsibility to fund livelihood support for the victims after they receive medical treatment.
(2) Instead of establishing a new support scheme specifically targeting the victims of nuclear testing, the Chinese government has formulated support policies for them within the framework of existing systems such as military pensions and social insurance. In fact, in early stages, the government provided special grants to cover the cost of examination, certification, and treatment of radiation effects of the retired veterans of the former Unit 8023 (State Council Policy  No. 300). Policies after State Council Policy  No. 117, however, provide that health protection and livelihood support for the victims are funded from the budget for social insurance in general, and instead of establishing a special criterion, these policies utilize the existing criteria that had been used in the support system for military personnel.
These two characteristics clarify the difference between the Chinese compensation system for victims of nuclear testing and those in other nuclear powers. While the other nuclear powers establish a specific compensation system for victims of nuclear testing in the form of specific laws, the Chinese compensation system is formulated as administrative policies within the existing legal framework of the military pension and social insurance system.
Book and Article
Shang, Aiguo 尚爱国. 2015. Jundui she he gangwei renyuan Fashe xing geren Jiliang guanli Ruogan wenti Yanjiu 军队涉核岗位人员发射性个人计量管理若干问题研究 [Research on Several Issues on Measurement and Management of Military Personnel Exposed to Radiation in Nuclear-related Positions]. Xi’an: Northwestern Polytechnical University Press.
Yang, Xiaoping楊小平. 2020. “Chūgoku ni okeru Kakujikken Higaisha Hoshō Sochi: Gunjin Onkyū Fukushi o Chūshin ni” 中国における核実験被害者補償措置：軍人恩給福祉を中心に [Compensation Measures for Victims of Nuclear Testing in China: Focusing on Military Pensions]. Kankyō to Kōgai 環境と公害 [Research on Environmental Disruption], 50 (2): 20–25.
Laws, Rules and Regulations, and GB Standards (in chronological order)
State Council Policy  No. 300
Guanyu Tuoshan Chuli Tuiwu Zhanshi Fanying Shou Fangshexian Sunhai Wenti de Qingshi Baogao (关于妥善处理退伍战士反映受放射线损害问题的请示报告) [Report on Petitions by Retired Veterans on Radiation Effects] (State Council Policy  No. 300, promulgated in 1979)
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guojia Biaozhun Fangshebing Zhenduan Bianzhun ji Chuli Yuanze (GBW-1-80) (中华人民共和国国家标准放射病诊断标准及处理原则 (GBW-1-80)) [GB Standard on Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Diseases and General Rule for Handling Cases (GBW-1-80)] (promulgated by Ministry of Health in 1980)
Zhigong Gongshang yu Zhiyebing Zhi Can Chengdu Jianding Biaozhun (职工工伤与职业病致残程度鉴定标准 (GB/T16180-1996)) [GB Standard on Assessment of the Extent of Disability Caused by Work-related Injuries and Occupational Diseases] (State Council Policy  No. 6, promulgated in 1996)
MCA Policy  No. 2
Shang Can Fuxu Guanli Zhanxing Banfa (伤残抚恤管理暂行办法) [Interim Measures for Support for Persons with Disabilities] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 2, promulgated in 1997)
President’s Policy  No. 60
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Zhiyebing Fangzhi Fa (中华人民共和国职业病防治法) [Rule on Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases in the People’s Republic of China] (President’s Policy  No. 60, promulgated in 2001)
Zhiyexing Gangshexing Baineizhang de Zhenduan (职业性放射性白内障的诊断) [GB Standard on Diagnostic Criteria for Occupational Radiation-induced Cataract] (promulgated by Ministry of Health in 2002)
Waizhaoshe ya Jixing Fangshebing Zhenduan Biaozhun (外照射亚急性放射病诊断标准) [GB Standard on Diagnostic Criteria for Subacute Radiation Diseases from External Exposure] (promulgated by Ministry of Health in 2002)
Zhiye xing Fangshexing Jibing Zhenduan Bianzhun (Zongze) (GBZ-112-2002) (职业性放射性疾病诊断标准 (总则) (GBZ-112-2002)) [GB Standard on Diagnostic Criteria for Occupational Radiation Effects (General Guideline) (GBZ112-2002)] (promulgated by Ministry of Health in 2002)
MoH Policy  No. 23
Zhiye Jiankang Jianhu Guanli Banfa (职业健康监护管理办法) [Methods of Monitoring and Management of Industrial Health] (Ministry of Health Policy  No. 23, promulgated in 2002)
MoH Policy  No. 24
Zhiyebing Zhenduan yu Jianding Banfa (职业病诊断与鉴定办法) [Methods of Diagnosis and Certification of Occupational Diseases] (Ministry of Health Policy  No. 24, promulgated in 2002)
MoH&MLSS Policy  No. 108
Zhiyebing Mulu (职业病目录) [List of Occupational Diseases] (Ministry of Health & Ministry of Labor and Social Security Policy  No. 108, promulgated in 2002)
State Council Policy  No. 117
Minzheng bu, Caizheng bu, Renshi bu, Laodong he Shehui Baozhang bu, Weisheng bu Guanyu Zuo hao Bufen Yuan 8023 budui ji Qita Canjia Heshiyan Jundui Tuiyi Renyuan Youguan Gongzuo de Tongzhi (民政部、财政部、人事部、劳动和社会保障部、卫生部关于做好部分原8023部队及其他参加核试验军队退役人员有关工作的通知) [Response from the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Labor and Social Security, and Ministry of Health with Regard to the Issue of Livelihood and Medical Difficulties of the Retired Veterans of the former Unit 8023 and Other Retired Veterans Who Participated in the Nuclear Testing] (State Council Policy  No. 117, promulgated in 2003)
MCA, MLSS, MoH & PLA General Logistics Dept. Policy  No. 195
Junren Canji Dengji Pingding Biaozhun (Shixing) (军人残疾等级评定标准 (试行)) [Criteria for Certification of Disability Levels of Military Persons (Tentative)] (Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Labor and Social Security, Ministry of Health, and People’s Liberation Army General Logistics Department Policy  No. 195, promulgated in 2004)
MCA & CMC Policy  No. 413
Junren Fuxu Youdai Tiaoli (军人抚恤优待条例) [Rule on Prioritized Support for Military Personnel] (Ministry of Civil Affairs and Central Military Commission Policy  No. 413, promulgated in 2004)
MCA Policy  No. 57
Guanyu Yuan 8023 budui Tuiwu junren Zhi can Zhi bing Yixue Jianding he Ping Can Buzu Wenti de Tongzhi (关于原8023部队退伍军人致残致病医学鉴定和评残补足问题的通知) [Notification on the Issue of Diagnosis of Radiation Effects of the Retired Veterans of the Former Unit 8023 and Compensation] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 57, promulgated in 2005)
MLSS Policy  No. 17
Guanyu Renzhen zuo hao Bufen Jundui Tuiwu Renyuan Laodong yu Shehui Baozhang Gongzuo Youguan Wenti de Tongzhi (关于认真做好部分军队退伍人员劳动与社会保障工作有关问题的通知) [Notification on the Issue with Regard to the Programs of Employment and Social Security for Some Retired Veterans] (Ministry of Labor and Social Security Policy  No. 17, promulgated in 2006)
MCA Policy  No. 32
Guanyu Zuo hao Yuan 8023 budui Tui yu Renyuan Youguan Gongzuo de Tongzhi (关于做好原8023 部队退域人员有关工作的通知) [Notification on Support Program for the Retired Veterans of the Former Unit 8023] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 32, promulgated in 2006)
MCA Policy  No. 51
Yuan 8023 budui Tuiyi Renyuan Tijian Youguan Wenti Jieda Tigang de Tongzhi (原8013部队退役人员体检有关问题解答提纲的通知) [Notification of the Outline of the Response with Regard to the Issue of Medical Examination of the Retired Veterans of the former Unit 8023] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 51, promulgated in 2006)
MCA Policy  No. 194
Minzheng bu Guanyu Zuo hao Yuan 8023 budui Tuiwu Renyun Xiantian Xing Canji Zinu Kangfu he Shenghuo Buzhu Gongzuo de Tongzhi (民政部关于做好原8023部队退伍人员先天性残疾子女康复和生活补助工作的通知) [Notification on Treatment and Livelihood Support for Children with Congenital Disabilities of the Retired Veterans of the Former Unit 8023] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 194, promulgated in 2006)
Publicity Department Policy  No. 9
Guanyu Jinyibu zuo hao Youfu Duixiang he Jundui Tuiwu Renyuan Youguan Gongzuo de Xuanchuan Jiaoyu Tigang (关于进一步做好优抚对象和军队退伍人员有关工作的宣传教育提纲) [Outline of Outreach to and Education of the Subjects of Priority Treatment and Retired Veterans] (Publicity Department Policy  No. 9, promulgated in 2007)
MLSS Policy  No. 28
Guanyu Jinyibu Luoshi Bufen Jundui Tuiyi Renyuan laodong Baozhang Zhengce de Tongzhi (关于进一步落实部分军队退役人员劳动保障政策的通知) [Notification on Further Implementation of the Labor Security Policies for Some Retired Veterans] (Ministry of Labor and Social Security Policy  No. 28, promulgated in 2007)
MCA Policy  No. 34
Zhanghai Fuzhu Guanli Banfa (障害扶助管理办法) [Rule on Management of Support Policies for Persons with Disabilities] (Ministry of Civil Affairs  No. 34, promulgated in 2007)
MCA Policy  No. 99
Guanyu Guance Luoshi Tiaozheng Bufen Youfu Duixiang Fuxu Buzhu Bianzhun de Tongzhi (关于观测落实调整部分优抚对象抚恤补助标准的通知) [Notification on Compensation Standards for the Subjects of Priority Treatment] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 99, promulgated in 2007)
MCA Policy  No. 100
Minzheng bu, Caizheng bu, Renshi bu, Laodong he Shehui baozhang bu, Weisheng bu Guanyu Zuo hao Yuan 8023 Budui ji Qita Canjia he Shiyan Jundui Tuiyi Renyuan Youguan Gongzuo de Tongzhi (民政部、财政部、人事部、劳动和社会保障部、卫生部关于做好部分原8023部队及其他参加核试验军队退役人员有关工作的通知) [Notification by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Personnel, and Ministry of Labor and Social Security with Regard to Treatment of Retired Veterans of the former Unit 8023 and Those Who Participated in Nuclear Testing] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 100, promulgated in 2007)
MCA Policy  No. 101
Guanyu Youfu Duixiang Yiliao Baozhang Banfa (关于优抚对象医疗保障办法) [Methods of Health Protection for the Subjects of Priority Treatment] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 101, promulgated in 2007)
MCA Policy  No. 102
Guanyu Luoshi Youfu Duixiang he Bufen Jundui Tuiyi Renyuan youguan Zhengce de Shishi Yijian (关于落实优抚对象和部分军队退役人员有关政策的实施意见) [Opinions on the Implementation of Policies for the Subjects of Priority Treatment and Some Retired Veterans] (Ministry of Civil Affairs  No. 102, promulgated in 2007)
MoC Policy  No. 172
Guanyu Jinyibu Luoshi he Wanshan 1993 nian zhi 1999 nian Jundui Fuyuan Ganbu Zhufang Zhengce he Zuo hao Shenghuo Jiuzhu Gongzuo de Tongzhi [关于进一步落实和完善1993年至1999年军队复员干部住房政策和做好生活救助工作的通知] [Notification on Implementation of the Housing Policy and Livelihood Support Program for Veterans Who Retired from 1993 to 1999] (Ministry of Construction Policy  No. 172, promulgated in 2007)
MCA Policy  No. 152
Guanyu Jinyibu Jiaqiang Youfu Duixiang Yiliao Baozhang Gongzuo de Tongzhi (关于进一步加强优抚对象医疗保障工作的通知) [Notification on Program to Strengthen Health Protection of the Subjects of Priority Treatment] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 152, promulgated in 2008)
MCA Policy  No. 135
Guanyu Tiaozheng Bufen Youfu Duixiang Deng Renyuan Youfu he Shenghuo Buzhu Biaozhun de Tongzhi (关于调整部分优抚对象等人员优抚和生活补助标准的通知) [Notification on Adjustment of the Standards of Compensation and Livelihood Support for the Subjects of Priority Treatment] (Ministry of Civil Affairs Policy  No. 135, promulgated in 2009)
Social Insurance Law
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Shehui Baoxianfa (中华人民共和国社会保险法) [Social Insurance Law] (promulgated by the Standing Committee, National People’s Congress, Oct. 28, 2010, effective July 1, 2011)
This is a translation of the original Japanese article, Yang 2020 (translated by Yuichi Yokoyama; proofread by Annelise Giseburt).
 Its current name is “Expert Committee on the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Diseases, National Health Standards Commission.”
 MCA Policy  No. 2, “Interim Measures for Support for Persons with Disabilities,” was promulgated in 1997. It was later updated to “Measures for Support for Persons with Disabilities” based on the “Policy on Prioritized Treatment of Support for Military Personnel.” The current criteria were updated in 2019.
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